In accordance with the Swiss Federal Nuclear Energy Act, the operators of nuclear facilities are responsible for their safe and secure operation. For the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, operators are required to implement safety measures that comply with internationally recognised standards. They are also required to define emergency measures to be taken in the event of the release of hazardous quantities of radioactive substances.
The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) is the official authority responsible for the safety and security of nuclear power plants in Switzerland. It supervises all the country's nuclear facilities, i.e. the five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facility in Würenlingen and the research reactors at the Paul Scherrer Institute, the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the University of Basel. Its supervisory duties encompass the planning stage, the operation and decommissioning of the facilities, and the disposal of radioactive waste. As a federal authority it is also responsible for ensuring the protection of personnel and the population against radiation, as well as against sabotage and acts of terrorism. It also supervises the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities, as well as geological studies in association with the future construction of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. Its supervisory activities are based on the latest status of science and technology.
The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) is an independent body that advises the Federal Council, the Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) and the Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) on issues relating to the safety of nuclear installations.