The producers of radioactive waste must bear the costs that are incurred in association with the disposal of radioactive waste ("user pays" principle). It is the operators of nuclear power plants who are responsible for the disposal of waste produced from nuclear energy, while the federal State (Swiss Confederation) is responsible for waste from healthcare, industry, and research.
Costs of waste disposal incurred during the operating life of nuclear power plants are paid continuously by the operators. Such costs include costs for research and preparatory work, reprocessing spent fuel elements, construction of interim storage facilities, the procurement of transport and storage containers.
The financing of the decommissioning costs and waste disposal costs after the shutdown of the works is covered by the decommissioning fund for nuclear facilities and the waste disposal fund for nuclear power plants.